This post is part of a series in which I will describe how I built my first PWA. It will touch on many topics such as Angular 2, Ionic 2, Firebase, service workers, push notifications, serverless architectures. I hope you find it useful when building your own PWAs.
I’ve spent last month working on my new project. It’s called Friendtainer and it’s a smartphone app which helps you meet with your friends regularly. You can add contacts and decide how often you want to meet. If you fail to record a meeting within given timespan you will start receiving reminders until you record a meeting.
- Part 1: Explaining PWA and introduction
- Part 2: Ionic and app manifest
- Part 3: Push notifications with Firebase Cloud Messaging
PWAs (Progressive Web Apps)
I decided to create the app as a Progressive Web Application (PWA). What is a PWA? It’s a new term coined by Google which basically means a web application which provides a native-like experience on mobile devices.
There are a few indicators of whether a web app is a PWA:
- Looks like a native app on mobile devices
- Loads fast and supports offline mode
- Can be launched from the phone’s home screen
- Runs full-screen
- May support push notifications (so the phone will display notifications even if the browser is not running)
What are the advantages of a PWA over a native mobile app? Discoverability! You don’t need to put your app in the App Store or the Play Store. All your users need to do is to go to a specific URL. Besides, you can use your web skills and don’t need to learn platform-specific technologies such as Swift or the Android framework.
Modern web technologies at work
As you can see, there are quite a few requirements that the app should satisfy. Let’s take them one by one.
- Looks like a native app on mobile devices – I know Angular best so I would like to use it to build the app. Ionic 2 is an excellent framework based on Angular 2 which provides a set of UI components that make your app look like a native app. The framework detects the device it’s running on and applies different styling depending on whether it’s the iOS or the Android operating system.
- Can be launched from the phone’s home screen and Runs full-screen – another technology called The Web App Manifest is responsible exactly for this. It’s quite easy to achieve – all you need to do is write a JSON file which defines various properties of the app. Given a proper manifest, Chrome on Android will show a suggestion to the user to install the app on the home screen.
- Push notifications – I wanted my app to send friend meeting reminders to the users so Push Notifications sounds great! Thanks to Service Workers and the Push API it’s possible for a web app to produce native-like notifications on Android phones. However, something has to send the notifications. I decided to use Firebase Cloud Messaging as a transport and Webtask for hosting the code that would actually invoke the notifications.
I wanted to develop my app fast and not spend time on setting up infrastructure so I decided to go for serverless architecture with Firebase Database instead of a dedicated backend.
Firebase Database is a no-SQL, real-time database that web applications can directly connect to. It is tightly integrated with Firebase authentication and has a powerful validation rule engine. Therefore, it’s possible to avoid having a separate application server.
The app will consist of the following components:
- The frontend written in Ionic 2 utilizing Service Workers for offline caching and receiving push notifications while the app is not in the foreground. It will also have a Web Manifest file to enable adding to the home screen.
- The data will be stored in a Firebase Database. Validation rules will enforce that a user can only modify their own data. Firebase will also provide authentication.
- A scheduled Webtask (function-as-a-service) will run daily, read data from the Firebase Database and send out push notifications and email reminders. Firebase also offers a similar functionality (it’s called Functions) but at the moment of writing they don’t support scheduled execution.
If you are not that familiar with Firebase or Webtasks, take a look at my previous post where I talk more about it.
Check out Part 2: Ionic 2 and app manifest