Advanced functional programming in TypeScript: functional exceptions

After looking into different ways of implementing Maybe in part 1 and part 2, let’s move on to another useful example of monads. In this article, we’ll introduce a new type called Result which is the functional programming’s answer to exceptions.

You can find the source code for this article here.


Exceptions are a very popular way of handling errors and unexpected situations in code. They are present in mainstream languages such as Java and C# and of course JavaScript. Interestingly, some new programming languages (such as Rust) deliberately didn’t introduce exceptions.

Are exceptions compatible with functional programming? Unfortunately, not so much. For example, pure functions shouldn’t have side effects. Throwing an exception is actually kind of side effect – it can lead to termination of the program.

Worse than that, exceptions introduce some unpredictability to the code.

function divide(x: number, y: number): number {
    if (y === 0) 
        throw new Error('Cannot divide by zero');
    return x / y;

Although the type signature tells us that divide returns a number, this is not always the case. We have to be very careful and make sure that we remember to handle the error. However, there is nothing in the type system that will make sure that we don’t forget to do that.

Better exceptions

How can we make it explicit that something can go wrong inside divide? Let’s create a new type Result<TSuccess, TFailure>.

Remember how Maybe<T> could either be Some or None? Similarly, Result<TSuccess, TFailure> can either be Success which represents the happy path or Failure which means that something went wrong and TFailure is the type of the error.

In other words, instances of our new type can either contain a valid result or an information about what went wrong. In contrast to exceptions, it is now explicit that an error can happen. What’s more, we know exactly what kinds of errors we have to deal with (TFailure tells us so).

Implementing Result

Let’s start with the following definition.

export class Result<TSuccess, TFailure> {
    private constructor(
        private value: TSuccess,
        private errorValue: TFailure
    ) {}

    static success<TSuccess, TFailure>(value: TSuccess) {
        return new Result<TSuccess, TFailure>(value, null);

    static failure<TSuccess, TFailure>(errorValue: TFailure) {
        return new Result<TSuccess, TFailure>(null, errorValue);

We’ve created a class that can only be constructed in two ways – via success or failure static methods. The class internally stores either a value representing valid result or errorValue containing information about what went wrong.

Let’s start with a simple method that extracts a value from Result. Remember that an instance of Result can either be a Success or a Failure. Therefore, when extracting the value we always have to assume that an error could have occurred. We need to provide handleError function which can deal with this error.

get(handleError: (errorValue: TFailure) => TSuccess): TSuccess {
    if (this.value === null) {
        return handleError(this.errorValue);
    } else {
        return this.value;

Similarly to Maybe, we need some operations to be able to conveniently work with Result types. Let’s start with map. In the happy scenario, it will take a function that will be applied to the value stored inside Result. However, if Result contains an error, it will simply ignore the provided function and return a failure.

map<R>(f: (wrapped: TSuccess) => R): Result<R, TFailure> {
    if (this.value === null) {
        return Result.failure<R, TFailure>(this.errorValue);
    } else {
        return Result.success<R, TFailure>(f(this.value));

However, it might be the case that the operation that we want to perform on the value stored inside Result returns a Result itself! In such case, we need flatMap.

flatMap<R>(f: (wrapped: TSuccess) => Result<R, TFailure>): Result<R, TFailure> {
    if (this.value === null) {
        return Result.failure<R, TFailure>(this.errorValue);
    } else {
        return f(this.value);

Result in practice

Great, we’re now ready to put our new type to work. Let’s adjust the code from the previous posts so that instead of using Maybe to represent potentially empty result, it uses Result to represent the potentially failed result.

findById(id: number): Result<Employee, string> {
    const results = this.employees.filter(employee => === id);
    return results.length 
        ? Result.success(results[0]) 
        : Result.failure("Employee does not exist");

We’ve updated the findById method so that it wraps the returned employee inside Result.success, provided that it was available. Otherwise, it returns Result.failure with an error message describing what went wrong. Therefore, TFailure will be a string in our case.

Next, let’s update the model. Now Employee.supervisorId is a Result as well! We treat a situation when an employee does not have a supervisor as kind of an error.

export interface Employee {
    id: number;
    name: string;
    supervisorId: Result<number, string>;

private employees: Employee[] = [
    { id: 1, name: "John", supervisorId: Result.failure("No supervisor") },
    { id: 2, name: "Jane", supervisorId: Result.success(1) },
    { id: 3, name: "Joe", supervisorId: Result.success(2) },

Now we need to make some adjustments to the usages of the above code inside main.ts file. Firstly, let’s change the event listener code to create a Result instance based on the content of the HTML input. Next, the Result is passed to getSupervisorName function which will return a Result as well (as we will see in a moment). Finally, when extracting the value from the Result instance, we provide a callback to handle the potential error.

findEmployeeButtonEl.addEventListener("click", () => {
    const inputResult: Result<string, string> = employeeIdInputEl.value 
        ? Result.success(employeeIdInputEl.value)
        : Result.failure("No employee id provided");
    const supervisorNameOrError = getSupervisorName(inputResult)
        .get(error => `Error occured: ${error}`);
    searchResultsEl.innerText = `Supervisor name: ${supervisorNameOrError}`;

Finally, the getSupervisorName function. And this is the most interesting part of the article because… the function looks almost exactly the same as in the case of Maybe!

function getSupervisorName(enteredIdResult: Result<string, string>): Result<string, string> {
    return enteredIdResult
        .flatMap(employeeId => repository.findById(employeeId))
        .flatMap(employee => employee.supervisorId)
        .flatMap(supervisorId => repository.findById(supervisorId))
        .map(supervisor =>;

function safeParseInt(numberString: string): Result<number, string> {
    const result = parseInt(numberString);
    return isNaN(result)
        ? Result.failure("Invalid number format") : Result.success(result);

The only adjustments are type signatures and the safeParseInt function.

It turns out that map and flatMap operations are so generic that they can handle two distinct scenarios with the same piece code. I hope you can see the power of monads now!

You can now run the program and enjoy nice error messages. Try out different scenarios such as providing non-existent id, id of an employee without a supervisor, non-numeric id, etc.


In this article, we saw how to use monads to replace exceptions with a more functional-friendly approach. Thanks to the Result type, we can make it explicit that a function can fail. What’s more, we force the caller to always assume that something could have gone wrong and provide an error handler.

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Error handling in this example is rather simplified. We use strings to convey the error message. However, there is nothing stopping you from using more advanced types in order to pass more meaningful information. For example, you could use discriminated unions to represent different kinds of errors.

What do you think about this approach to error handling? Do you think it’s more readable than traditional exceptions? Share your thoughts in comments!