Scala for C# developers – part I

Recently, after three years of focusing mainly on the .NET platform, I’ve changed jobs. My current company uses Scala for server-side programming in their projects. I was very happy for this transition. Both Scala and C# can be considered hybrid functional and object-oriented programming languages. However, Scala seemed to feel more functional than C# – more built-in functional constructs, tighter syntax, default immutability, etc. While this is true, I was surprised how many similarities these languages. I concluded that as long as you have already seen the more functional side of C#, it is really easy to transition to Scala. This post series will discuss some of the similarities and differences between Scala and C#.

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Editable cells in Angular UI Grid not working

This week at work I spent too much time on this small issue I had with UI Grid so I thought I will share the solution.

Angular documentation tells you that it is possible to make a column editable by setting enableCellEdit to true in columnDef.

What wasn’t obvious for me, is that for this to work you also need to load the ui.grid.edit module and add the uiGridEdit directive to the element on which you enabled uiGrid. Code example below.



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Is array of Dogs an array of Animals? Covariance, contravariance and invariance explained – part 2

This post is a continuation of Is array of Dogs an array of Animals? Covariance, contravariance and invariance explained – part 1.

Method overriding

Type variance is not just relevant to generics but also to ineritance of regular, not generic, classes.

When overriding a method in a class you usually make sure that it has the same argument types and return type. Note that it is not always necessary.

For example, it makes sense for the overriding method to return a subtype of the return type of the original method.

The caller of getAnimal will expect an instance of Animal. Returning something more derived (a Dog) will be perfectly type safe. Therefore, we can say that return type of overriden method is covariant.

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Is array of Dogs an array of Animals? Covariance, contravariance and invariance explained – part 1

Welcome to the first post on my blog. I would like to dedicate it to a topic that sounds quite intimidating but is in fact quite simple to understand. There are already good explanations of type variance to be found on other blogs or Stack Overflow but I would like to take a broader approach and look at how different programming languages deal with it.

The problem

So, what is this cryptic title about? Let me start with this classic example in Java.

Would you expect this piece of code to compile? The answer depends on what operations are available on MyList. Let’s assume that MyList is very similiar to ArrayList and it allows you to get and add.

Now, assuming that the questioned piece of code would compile, it would be perfectly valid to add a Cat to the list of Animals which is in fact a list of Dogs. This is not something we would want the compiler to allow.

In this case, MyList<Dog> is not (does not inherit from) MyList<Animal>. We call MyList invariant. This is the kind of behaviour that we get in Java.

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